Conditional Relations and Dependent Arising(Paticca samuppada)-Paccaya
24 Conditions of dependent arising which tells about the Conditional relations(paccaya). Ashoka chakra or Dhamma chakra is our national symbol depicted in our national flag represents all these laws with 24 spokes in it.We are proud in the world for ever for this great wisdom of Buddha.
Paccaya, 5 Defenitions.
Paccaya or 'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthana, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka (comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition), these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.

(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e., of greed (lobha), hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition of these 6 roots, s. mula.
"The roots are a condition by way of root for the (mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" (Patth).
(2) Object-condition (arammana-paccaya) is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññana), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sota-viññana), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-viññana). The mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.
(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda), energy (viriya), consciousness (citta) and investigation (vimamsa). In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-pada.
(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately following mind element - performing the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññana-kicca.
(6) Co-nascence condition (sahajata-paccaya), i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of co nascence.
(7) Condition by way of mutuality (aññamañña-paccaya). All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.
(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya). This condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually (s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support.
(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition (upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely:
• (a) by way of object (arammanupanissaya-paccaya),
• (b) by way of proximity (anantarupanissaya),
• (c) natural decisive support (pakatupanissaya).
These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.
• (a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
• (b;) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4).
• (c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.
(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejata-paccaya) refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.
(11) Post-nascence-condition (paccha-jata-paccaya) refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.
(12) Repetition-condition (asevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.
(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma (i.e karma-volitions, kamma-cetana, in a previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical volition is also a condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way karma-results.
(14) Karma-result-condition (vipaka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(15) Nutriment-condition (ahara-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s. ahara.
(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya). This condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in their capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncorporeal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(17) Jhana-condition (jhana-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called jhana-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena, to wit:
• (1) thought-conception (vitakka),
• (2) discursive thinking (vicara),
• (3) interest (piti),
• (4) joy (sukha),
• (5) sadness (domanassa),
• (6) indifference (upekkha),
• (7) concentration (samadhi). (For definition s. Pali terms)
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab.I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (Tab.I.30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of deluded consciousness (Tab.I.32, 33).
This condition does not only apply to jhana alone, but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.
(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the karmically wholesome and unwholesome mental phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely:
• (1) knowledge (pañña = sammaditthi, right understanding),
• (2) (right or wrong) thought-conception (vitakka),
• (3) right speech (samma-vaca),
• (4) right bodily action (samma-kammanta),
• (5) right livelihood (samma-ajiva),
• (6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya),
• (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness (sati),
• (8) (right or wrong) concentration (samadhi),
• (9) wrong views (micchaditthi),
• (10) wrong speech (miccha-vaca),
• (11) wrong bodily action (miccha-kammanta),
• (12) wrong livelihood (miccha-ajiva). Cf. magga.
(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).
(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not having the same physical base (eye, etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.
(2l) Presence-condition (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.
(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.
(23) Disappearance-condition (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 22.
(24) Non-disappearance-condition (avigata-paccaya) is identical with No. 21.
These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppada). Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.) .
See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka (WHEEL 140).
- Source: Pali Kanon - Pali Proper Names
1. Paccaya Thera
An arahant. He belonged to a noble family of Rohi (Rohini) and succeeded to his fathers estate. Once, when he was holding a ceremonial oblation, a great number of people assembled, and the Buddha, arriving among them, preached from the sky, seated in a jewelled pavilion made for him by Vessavana. Paccaya heard the preaching and renounced the world, attaining arahantship in a few days, and not leaving his cell till he had developed insight.
It is said that in the time of Kassapa Buddha, Paccaya was a monk who refused to leave the vihara till he gained insight, but he died before his purpose was fulfilled. Earlier, ninety one kappas ago, he had come across the Buddha Vipassi, on the banks of the Vinata, and had offered him a fig (udumbara) (Thag. vss. 222 4; ThagA.i.341f). He is probably identical with Udumbaraphaladayaka of the Apadana. Ap.i.295.
2. Paccaya
The state elephant of Vessantara, brought to the stall by a female flying elephant, on the day of his birth, and deposited there. He was white in colour, and was called Paccaya because he supplied a need of Vemantara.
Paccaya Sutta
An explanation of the teaching regarding Paticcasamuppada. S.ii.25f.
- Source: Dhamma Dana - Pali English Glossary
T (Cause / Support, help).
- Source: Journey to Nibbana - Patthana Dhama
Paccaya means support, condition, supported condition , cause, he cause.
- Source: ebookbrowse - Patthana (conditional relations preview)
The Buddha mentioned in the Pa??hana altogether 24 conditions (paccaya) which relate cause and effect in various ways.
The conditioning phenomena mostly not “produce” the effect, but are one of the various necessary conditions, or support the effect or just influence it in one or the other way. Important to understand is, that the effect must not necessarily arise later then the cause or condition. They can be at the same time or even the effect might be earlier than the cause. The Pa??hana explains in great detail how or why the cause conditions its effect, which dhammas can be related – or not – by which condition.

1. Hetu-paccaya Root-condition
2. Aramma?a-paccaya Object-condition
3. Adhipati-paccaya
- Aramma?’adhipati
- Sahajat’adhipati Predominance-condition
- Object-predominance
- Conascence-predominance
4. Anantara-paccaya Proximity-condition
5. Samanantara-paccaya Contiguity-condition
6. Sahajata-paccaya Conascence-condition
7. Aññamañña-paccaya Mutuality-condition
8. Nissaya-paccaya
- Sahajata-nissaya
- Purejata-nissaya
- Vatthu-
- Vattharamma?a- Support-condition
- Conascence-support
- Prenascence-support
- Base-
- Base-object-
9. Upanissaya-paccaya
- Aramma?’upanissaya
- Anantar’upanissaya
- Pakat’upanissaya Decisive support-condition
- Object decisive support
- Proximity decisive support
- Natural decisive support
10. Purejata-paccaya
- Vatthu-purejata
- Aramma?a-purejata Prenanscence-condition
- Base-prenascence
- Object-prenascence
11. Pacchajata-paccaya Postnascence-condition
12. Asevana-paccaya Repetition-condition
13. Kamma-paccaya
- Sahajata-kamma
- Nanakkha?ika-kamma Kamma-condition
- Conascent kamma
- Asynchronous kamma
14. Vipaka-paccaya Result-condition
15. Ahara-paccaya
- Rupahara
- Namahara Nutriment-condition
- material nutriment
- mental nutriment
16. Indriya-paccaya
- Purejata-indriya
- Jivit’indriya
- Sahajata-indriya Faculty-condition
- Prenanscence faculty
- Material life faculty
- Conascence faculty
17. Jhana-paccaya Jhana-condition
18. Magga-paccaya Path-condition
19. Sampayutta-paccaya Association-condition
20. Vippayutta-paccaya
- Sahajata-vippayutta
- Purejata-vippayutta
- Pacchajata-vippayutta Dissociation-condition
- Conansence dissociation
- Prenascence dissociation
- Postnascence dissociation
21. Atthi-paccaya
- Sahajata-atthi
- Purejata-atthi
- Pacchajata-atthi
- Ahara-atthi
- Indriya-atthi Presence-condition
- Conascence presence
- Prenascence presence
- Postnascence presence
- Nutriment presence
- Faculty presence
22. Natthi-paccaya Absence-condition
23. Vigata-paccaya Disappearance-condition (same as 22)
24. Avigata-paccaya Non-disappearance

The first two volumes of the Patthana have been translated into English by the Venerable U Narada (Mulapatthana Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations (Published by the Pali Text Society, London 1969, 1981).
The 24 modes of conditionality are: